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Autonomous and Intelligent Radio Switching

Qiuyi Duan
PhD Dissertation
December 2008 Abstract  BibTex 

With the proliferation of mobile applications and the abundance of

wireless devices, it is increasingly common for devices to support

multiple radios. When two devices are communicating they should choose

the best available radio based on user preference and application

requirements. This type of “radio switching” should happen automatically,

so that the system optimizes performance dynamically.

To achieve this objective, we design an Autonomous and Intelligent

Radio Switching (AIRS) system to leverage the radio heterogeneity

common in today’s wireless devices. The AIRS system consists of three

key components. First, we design a radio preference evaluation module

to dynamically select the best radio according to users’ preference,

application’s QoS requirements, and the device battery usage. Second,

we propose a link quality measurement and prediction module to predict

the radio quality under a variety of mobility and interference conditions.

Third, we present a radio switching decision making module to switch

to the preferred available radio intelligently, based on the preference

and link quality evaluations.

The AIRS system maintains connectivity, as well as improves link quality,

via dynamic and intelligent radio switching, regardless of interference

or collisions from the interfaces of other devices. The radio preference

evaluation module is able to generate and adjust a preference list

dynamically. Multiple users’ requirements are satisfied in a mutually

beneficial manner and the selected radio is Pareto optimal. The link

prediction module is able to achieve an accuracy above 90% under

a variety of mobility and interference conditions. The module can

dynamically increase the link measurement interval and significantly

reduce its power consumption, without sacrificing accuracy. The decision

algorithm uses several parameters to avoid switching radios too frequently,

and is able to provide dynamic, but stable radio switching, while

balancing the competing objectives of high throughput and low power

consumption. Overall, the AIRS system is able to achieve high goodput

(application level throughput) and long battery life as applied to

handoff management in a frequently changing mobile environment.

@PHDTHESIS{2008Duan,
     author = {Qiuyi Duan},
     title = {Autonomous and Intelligent Radio Switching},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2008},
     month = {December}
}

Autonomous and Intelligent Radio Switching for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Qiuyi Duan, Lei Wang, Charles D. Knutson, Daniel Zappala
Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS 2008)
October 2008 Abstract  BibTex 

As wireless devices continue to become more prevalent, heterogeneous

wireless networks - in which communicating devices have at their

disposal multiple types of radios - will become the norm. Communication

between nodes in these networks ought to be as simple as possible;

they should be able to seamlessly switch between different radios

and network stacks on the fly in order to better serve the user.

To make this a possibility, we consider the challenging problems

of when two communicating devices should decide to switch to a different

radio, and which radio they should choose. We design an autonomous

and intelligent radio switch (AIRS) decision algorithm that uses

predicted radio availability and user profiles to choose the best

available radio for two adjacent devices. The decision algorithm

uses several parameters to avoid switching radios too frequently.

We use a simulation study to evaluate the best settings for several

parameters, then show that the AIRS system performs better than several

alternative algorithms. AIRS is able to provide dynamic, but stable

radio switching, while balancing the competing objectives of high

throughput and low power consumption.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2008Duanb,
     author = {Qiuyi Duan, Lei Wang, Charles D. Knutson, Daniel Zappala},
     title = {Autonomous and Intelligent Radio Switching for Heterogeneous Wireless
     Networks},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS 2008)},
     year = {2008},
     pages = {666-671},
     month = {October},
     doi = {10.1109/MAHSS.2008.4660107},
     keywords = {telecommunication switching, wireless sensor networksautonomous-intelligent
     radio switching, communicating devices, decision algorithm, heterogeneous
     wireless networks, radio availability}
}

Link Quality Prediction for Wireless Devices with Multiple Radios

Qiuyi Duan, Lei Wang, Charles D. Knutson, Daniel Zappala
Proceedings of the International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM 2008)
June 2008 Abstract  BibTex 

Communication between wireless devices ought to be as simple as possible;

they should be able to seamlessly switch between different radios

and network stacks on the fly in order to better serve the user.

To make this a possibility, we consider the challenging problem of

predicting link quality in a changing mobile environment. In this

paper we present an algorithm that uses Weighted Least Squares Regression

to predict whether a given link can meet application requirements

in terms of throughput, delay, and jitter. We use a simulation study

to demonstrate that our algorithm is able to predict link quality

accurately and stably in a frequently changing mobile environment.

The prediction algorithm is more accurate than several alternative

algorithms, and the overhead caused by the link measurements is negligible

in terms of throughput and power consumption.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2008Duana,
     author = {Qiuyi Duan, Lei Wang, Charles D. Knutson, Daniel Zappala},
     title = {Link Quality Prediction for Wireless Devices with Multiple Radios},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM 2008)},
     year = {2008},
     pages = {1-5},
     month = {June},
     doi = {10.1109/WOWMOM.2008.4594869},
     keywords = {jitter, least squares approximations, mobile radio, radio links, regression
     analysisjitter, link quality prediction, mobile radio, weighted least
     squares regression method, wireless device}
}

RIA: An RF Interference Avoidance Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Manoj Pandey, Daniel P. Delorey, Qiuyi Duan, Lei Wang, Charles D. Knutson, Daniel Zappala, Ryan W. Woodings
Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2003 (WCNC 2003)
March 2007 Abstract  BibTex 

Devices with multiple wireless interfaces are becoming increasingly

popular. We envision that these devices will become the building

block for future mesh networks, providing seamless connectivity across

a range of heterogeneous devices. Although these devices typically

implement frequency sharing, using either direct sequence spread

spectrum (DSSS) or frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), they

may still interfere with one another. In this paper we provide a

novel radio interference avoidance (RIA) algorithm that solves the

problem of interference between IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth. We then

extend this algorithm to other types of DSSS and FHSS combinations.

Though the algorithm is limited to devices with both of these interfaces,

this is a very common case. We analytically derive the expected value

of the response time for RIA and run simulations to demonstrate its

effectiveness. Our results indicate that RIA is able to eliminate

interference with a very short response time. RIA also outperforms

adaptive frequency hopping, a solution proposed by the IEEE 802.15

co-existence working group.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2007Pandey,
     author = {Manoj Pandey, Daniel P. Delorey, Qiuyi Duan, Lei Wang, Charles D. Knutson, Daniel Zappala, Ryan W. Woodings},
     title = {RIA: An RF Interference Avoidance Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless
     Networks},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2003 (WCNC 2003)},
     year = {2007},
     pages = {4051-4056},
     month = {March},
     doi = {10.1109/WCNC.2007.740},
     issn = {1525-3511},
     keywords = {Bluetooth, frequency hop communication, interference suppression,
     radio access networks, spread spectrum communicationBluetooth, IEEE
     802.11, RF interference avoidance algorithm, adaptive frequency hopping,
     heterogeneous wireless networks}
}

A Performance Evaluation of Dynamic Transport Switching for Multi-Transport Devices

Lei Wang
Masters Thesis
December 2006 Abstract  BibTex  URL 

Multi-transport devices are becoming more common, but sophisticated

software is needed to fully realize the advantages of these devices.

In this paper, we examine the performance of dynamic transport switching,

which selects the best available transport for communication between

two devices. We simulate transport switching within the Quality of

Transport (QoT) architecture and show that it can effectively mitigate

the effects of congestion and interference for connections between

two multi-transport devices. We then evaluate dynamic transport switching

overhead to characterize its effect on application throughput. Based

on these insights, we identify several limitations of the QoT architecture

and present solutions to improve performance.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2006Wang,
     author = {Lei Wang},
     title = {A Performance Evaluation of Dynamic Transport Switching for Multi-Transport
     Devices},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2006},
     month = {December},
     url = {http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/ETD&CISOPTR=844&CISOBOX=1&REC=6}
}

Characterizing Dynamic Power and Data Rate Policies for Wireless USB Networks

Jeffrey L. Barlow
Masters Thesis
August 2006 Abstract  BibTex  URL 

Wireless communication is increasingly ubiquitous. However, mobility

depends intrinsically on battery life. Power can be conserved at

the Media Access Control (MAC) layer by intelligently adjusting transmission

power level and data rate encoding. WirelessUSB is a low-latency

wireless technology developed by Cypress Semiconductor Corporations

for human interface devices such as keyboards and mice. WirelessUSB

devices conserve power by employing power-efficient hardware, dynamic

power level adjustment and dynamic data rate adjustment.

We characterize the effects on power consumption of dynamically adjusting

mode power using two dynamic power negotiation techniques. We also

characterize the effects of dynamically adjusting data rate using

three rate adjustment techniques. We further characterize the effects

of collaboratively adjusting both power and data rate we validate

our techniques through simulation and find that such collaboration

yields the greatest energy conservation for a wide variety of conditions

and usage models.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2006Barlow,
     author = {Jeffrey L. Barlow},
     title = {Characterizing Dynamic Power and Data Rate Policies for Wireless
     USB Networks},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2006},
     month = {August},
     url = {http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd1479.pdf}
}

Brand X: A Cross-Layer Architecture for Quality of Transport (QoT)

Gregory A. DeHart
Masters Thesis
August 2006 Abstract  BibTex  URL 

Computing devices are commonly equipped with multiple transport technologies

such as IrDA, Bluetooth and WiFi. Transport switching technologies,

such as Quality of Transport (QoT), take advantage of this heterogeneity

to keep network sessions active as users move in and out of range

of various transports or as the networking environment changes. Autonomous

transport switching technologies rely on information regarding current

network status and the ambient wireless environment in order to make

intelligent decisions. This thesis proposes Brand X, a cross-layer

architecture designed for a QoT environment to provide timely and

accurate environment information in order to facilitate autonomous

transport switching. This thesis also presents a performance analysis

of network protocol stack latency in a QoT environment considering

the various cross-layer mechanisms utilized in Brand X and other

architectures.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2006DeHart,
     author = {Gregory A. DeHart},
     title = {Brand X: A Cross-Layer Architecture for Quality of Transport (QoT)},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2006},
     month = {August},
     url = {http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd1365.pdf}
}

Axiomatic Multi-Transport Bargaining: A Quantitative Method for Dynamic Transport Selection in Heterogeneous Multi-Transportwireless Environments

Qiuyi Duan, Lei Wang, Charles D. Knutson, Michael A. Goodrich
Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2006 (WCNC 2006)
April 2006 Abstract  BibTex 

Transport selection mechanisms are designed to facilitate seamless

connectivity in heterogeneous multi-transport environments, allowing

access to the "best" available transport according to user requirements.

Evaluating transport configurations dynamically according to the

user's preferences and quality of service (QoS) requirements is a

challenging task. This paper describes a quantitative approach that

applies the Utility Theorem and Nash's Bargaining solution to heterogeneous

wireless environments. The mathematical model presented generates

and adjusts the transport preference list dynamically depending on

the degree to which a transport satisfies user preferences and the

application's QoS requirements. We incorporate a negotiation engine

using the axiomatic multi-transport bargaining algorithm to integrate

local and remote users' requirements in a mutually beneficial manner

as devices are connected via a peer-to-peer link. The transport selection

model discussed in this paper is computationally light with modest

communication overhead, making it suitable for mobile devices

@INPROCEEDINGS{2006Duan,
     author = {Qiuyi Duan, Lei Wang, Charles D. Knutson, Michael A. Goodrich},
     title = {Axiomatic Multi-Transport Bargaining: A Quantitative Method for Dynamic
     Transport Selection in Heterogeneous Multi-Transportwireless Environments},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2006 (WCNC 2006)},
     year = {2006},
     volume = {1},
     pages = {98-105},
     month = {April},
     doi = {10.1109/WCNC.2006.1683448},
     issn = {1525-3511},
     keywords = {mobile radio, peer-to-peer computing, quality of serviceQoS, axiomatic
     multitransport bargaining, dynamic transport selection, heterogeneous
     multitransport wireless environments, mobile devices, peer-to-peer
     link, quality of service}
}

Rate-Adaptive Runlength Limited Encoding for High-Speed Infrared Communication

James C. Funk
Masters Thesis
September 2005 Abstract  BibTex  URL 

My thesis will demonstrate that Rate Adaptive Runlength Limited encoding

(RA-RLL) achieves high data rates with acceptable error rate over

a wide range of signal distortion/attenuation, and background noise.

RA-RLL has performance superior to other infrared modulation schemes

in terms of bandwidth e±ciency, duty cycle control, and synchronization

frequency. Rate adaptive techniques allow for quick convergence of

RA-RLL parameters to acceptable values. RA-RLL may be feasibly implemented

on systems with non-ideal timing and digital synchronization.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2005Funk,
     author = {James C. Funk},
     title = {Rate-Adaptive Runlength Limited Encoding for High-Speed Infrared
     Communication},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2005},
     month = {September},
     url = {http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd1025.pdf}
}

Modeling FHSS and DSSS Mutual Interference in ISM Radio Frequency Bands

Christopher L. Bauer
Masters Thesis
December 2004 Abstract  BibTex 

A model for determining the performance of 11Mbps 802.11b in the presence

of Bluetooth signals is presented. A summary of the different factors

that can impact performance is presented. Analysis and experimentation

are performed to determine which of these factors are relevant and

should be included in the mode. Based on these factors, a model that

operates in the ISMulator simulation environment is presented. Simulation

results are compared with actual measurements to verify the model.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2004Bauer,
     author = {Christopher L. Bauer},
     title = {Modeling FHSS and DSSS Mutual Interference in ISM Radio Frequency
     Bands},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2004},
     month = {December}
}

Access Isn't Always the Killer Application

Charles D. Knutson, Ryan W. Woodings, Derek Joos
Wireless Systems Design Magazine
December 2004 Abstract  BibTex  URL 

Mobile wireless PANs demonstrate the importance of matching the right

usage model to the most appropriate technology.

@ARTICLE{2004CharlesD.Knutson,
     author = {Charles D. Knutson, Ryan W. Woodings, Derek Joos},
     title = {Access Isn't Always the Killer Application},
     journal = {Wireless Systems Design Magazine},
     year = {2004},
     month = {December},
     url = {http://www.wsdmag.com/Articles/ArticleID/9420/9420.html}
}

Mobile Trust Negotiation - Authentication and Authorization in Dynamic Mobile Networks

Timothy W. Van Der Horst, Tore Sundelin, Kent E. Seamons, Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the Eighth IFIP Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security
September 2004 Abstract  BibTex  URL 

We examine several architectures for extending the nascent technology

of automated trust negotiation to bring nonidentity-based authentication

and authorization to mobile devices. We examine how the location

of trust agents and secure repositories affects such a system. We

also present an implementation of one of these models. This protocol

leverages software proxies, autonomous trust agents, and secure repositories

to allow portable devices from different security domains (i.e.,

with no pre-existing relationship) to establish trust and perform

secure transactions. This proposed system is called surrogate trust

negotiation as the sensitive and resource-intense tasks of authentication

are performed vicariously for the mobile device by a surrogate trust

agent.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2004Horst,
     author = {Timothy W. Van Der Horst, Tore Sundelin, Kent E. Seamons, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Mobile Trust Negotiation - Authentication and Authorization in Dynamic
     Mobile Networks},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the Eighth IFIP Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security},
     year = {2004},
     month = {September},
     url = {http://isrl.cs.byu.edu/pubs/CMS_2004.pdf}
}

A Qualitative Method for Dynamic Transport Selection in Heterogenous Wireless Environments

Heidi R. Duffin
Masters Thesis
August 2004 Abstract  BibTex  URL 

Computing devices are commonly equipped with multiple transport technologies

such as IrDA, Bluetooth and WiFi. Transport switching technologies,

such as Quality of Transport (QoT), take advantage of this heterogeneity

to keep network sessions active as users move in and out of range

of various transports or as the networking environment changes. During

an active session, the goal is to keep the device connected over

the best transport currently available. To accomplish that, this

thesis introduces a two-phase decision making protocol. In phase

one, intra-device prioritization, users indicate the relative importance

of criteria such as speed, power, service charge, or signal range

through a comprehensive user interface. QoT-enabled devices process

this information with the prioritized soft constraint satisfaction

(PSCS) scoring function to ascertain the transport that best meets

the user's needs. The second phase, interdevice negotiation, facilitates

two QoT-enabled devices in agreeing to a united selection of the

best transport. This phase uses a modifed version of the PSCS scoring

function based on the preferences of both users. Additionally, devices

may utilize multiple transports simultaneously to more accurately

meet user demands.

The PSCS scoring function considers pairs of transports and calculates

the ratio that will yield the desired performance. Another set of

functions, also presented in this thesis, is then used to accomplish

the desired performance level despite the potential introduction

of additional overhead.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2004Duffina,
     author = {Heidi R. Duffin},
     title = {A Qualitative Method for Dynamic Transport Selection in Heterogenous
     Wireless Environments},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2004},
     month = {August},
     url = {http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd546.pdf}
}

IrDA Principles and Protocols: The IrDA Library, Vol. 1

Charles D. Knutson, Jeffrey M. Brown
MCL Press, Salem, Utah
May 2004 Abstract  BibTex 

Standards from the Infrared Data Association today permit tens of

millions of users to easily beam items between handheld devices.

Professionals beam business cards from PDA to cell phone. School

children wirelessly exchange games at recess. Shoppers make purchases

at grocery stores by pointing a handheld device at point of sale

terminal. The "point and shoot" ease of IrDA technology has made

the small dark plastic window an ubiquitous feature on devices of

all kinds, including laptops, cell phones, PDAs, printers, wristwatches

and digital cameras.

IrDA Principles and Protocols is the first definitive book on the

standards of the Infrared Data Association, providing an accessible

overview of the technology for novices, while delivering the most

relevant technical details for experts.

@BOOK{2004CharlesD.Knutsona,
     title = {IrDA Principles and Protocols: The IrDA Library, Vol. 1},
     publisher = {MCL Press, Salem, Utah},
     year = {2004},
     author = {Charles D. Knutson, Jeffrey M. Brown},
     volume = {1},
     month = {May}
}

Prioritized Soft Constraint Satisfaction: A Qualitative Method for Dynamic Transport Selection in Heterogeneous Wireless Environments

Heidi R. Duffin, Charles D. Knutson, Michael A. Goodrich
Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2004 (WCNC 2004)
March 2004 Abstract  BibTex 

This paper presents prioritized soft constraint satisfaction (PSCS),

a novel approach to selecting the ''best" transport in dynamic wireless

transport switching systems. PSCS maintains a satisfying connection

to another end point by choosing transports based on a user-established

range of preferences and priority for criteria such as speed, power,

range and cost. Additionally, feedback is provided regarding tradeoffs

among the criteria, thus enabling the user to adjust inputs according

to the capabilities of the system. We also recommend guidelines for

setting preferences and priorities.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2004Duffin,
     author = {Heidi R. Duffin, Charles D. Knutson, Michael A. Goodrich},
     title = {Prioritized Soft Constraint Satisfaction: A Qualitative Method for
     Dynamic Transport Selection in Heterogeneous Wireless Environments},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2004 (WCNC 2004)},
     year = {2004},
     volume = {4},
     pages = { 2527-2532 Vol.4},
     month = {March},
     issn = {1525-3511 },
     keywords = { Internet, mobile radio, telecommunication switching, transport protocols,
     wireless LAN dynamic transport selection, dynamic wireless transport
     switching system, heterogeneous wireless environment, prioritized
     soft constraint satisfaction, qualitative method}
}

Dynamic Autonomous Transport Selection in Heterogeneous Wireless Environments

Charles D. Knutson, Heidi R. Duffin, Jeffrey M. Brown, Shannon B. Barnes, Ryan W. Woodings
Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2004 (WCNC 2004)
March 2004 Abstract  BibTex 

In this paper, we introduce quality of transport (QoT), an architecture

for synergistically and autonomously managing session-layer protocol

access to multiple transports in heterogeneous wireless environments.

We present an overview of the QoT architecture including: 1) transport

discovery, 2) service discovery, 3) object exchange, 4) transport

switching, and 5) intelligent transport selection. Preliminary successes

with our design and implementation of QoT suggest that dynamic intelligent

autonomous transport switching can help to optimize user experience

and session layer performance in multi-transport environments.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2004Knutson,
     author = {Charles D. Knutson, Heidi R. Duffin, Jeffrey M. Brown, Shannon B. Barnes, Ryan W. Woodings},
     title = {Dynamic Autonomous Transport Selection in Heterogeneous Wireless
     Environments},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2004 (WCNC 2004)},
     year = {2004},
     volume = {2},
     pages = { 689-694 Vol.2},
     month = {March},
     issn = {1525-3511 },
     keywords = { access protocols, mobile radio, optimisation, telecommunication network
     management, telecommunication services, telecommunication switching
     dynamic autonomous transport selection, heterogeneous wireless environments,
     intelligent transport selection, object exchange, optimization, quality
     of transport, service discovery, session-layer protocol access management,
     transport discovery, transport switching}
}

A Study of the Suitability of IrOBEX for High-Speed Exchange of Large Data Objects

Casey T. Deccio, J. Ekstrom, D. Ryan Partridge, Kevin B. Tew, Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2003 (GLOBECOM 2003)
December 2003 Abstract  BibTex 

This paper demonstrates that careful tuning of the OBEX and IrLAP

negotiated parameters allows OBEX to scale well for use with large

data objects and high transmission rates. Due to the substantial

time overhead inherent in link turnarounds, minimizing turnarounds

during the transmission of a large object helps to maximize link

efficiency. The IrLAP window size and OBEX packet size significantly

impact the number of required turnarounds during the transmission

of a large object. When these parameters are properly tuned, maximum

throughput can be achieved, and OBEX performs efficiently at high

data rates.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2003Deccio,
     author = {Casey T. Deccio, J. Ekstrom, D. Ryan Partridge, Kevin B. Tew, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {A Study of the Suitability of IrOBEX for High-Speed Exchange of Large
     Data Objects},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2003 (GLOBECOM 2003)},
     year = {2003},
     volume = {5},
     pages = { 2664-2668 vol.5},
     month = {December},
     doi = {10.1109/GLOCOM.2003.1258719},
     keywords = { access protocols, data communication, telecommunication links IrLAP
     negotiated parameter, IrOBEX, high-speed exchange, substantial time
     overhead}
}

Trust Negotiation for Authentication and Authorization in Healthcare Information Systems

David K. Vawdrey, Tore L. Sundelin, Kent E. Seamons, Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2003
September 2003 Abstract  BibTex 

The expanding availability of health information in an electronic

format is strategic for industry-wide efforts to improve the quality

and reduce the cost of health care. The implementation of electronic

medical record systems has been hindered by inadequate security provisions.

This paper describes the use of trust negotiation as a framework

for providing authentication and access control services in healthcare

information systems. Trust negotiation enables two parties with no

preexisting relationship to establish the trust necessary to perform

sensitive transactions via the mutual disclosure of attributes contained

within digital credentials. An extension of this system, surrogate

trust negotiation is introduced as a way to meet the security requirements

of healthcare delivery systems based on mobile computing devices

and wireless communication technologies. These innovative technologies

have enormous potential to improve the current state of security

in healthcare information systems.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2003Vawdreya,
     author = {David K. Vawdrey, Tore L. Sundelin, Kent E. Seamons, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Trust Negotiation for Authentication and Authorization in Healthcare
     Information Systems},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE
     Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2003},
     year = {2003},
     volume = {2},
     pages = { 1406-1409 Vol.2},
     month = {September},
     doi = {10.1109/IEMBS.2003.1279579},
     issn = {1094-687X },
     keywords = { access control, authorisation, biomedical electronics, health care,
     medical information systems, message authentication, mobile computing,
     radio access networks, telemedicine access control service, authentication,
     authorization, electronic medical record systems, healthcare information
     system, mobile computing devices, security, surrogate trust negotiation,
     trust negotiation, wireless communication}
}

A Self-Adapting Healthcare Information Infrastructure Using Mobile Computing Devices

David K. Vawdrey, Eric S. Hall, Charles D. Knutson, James K Archibald
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Enterprise Networking and Computing in Healthcare Industry, 2003 (Healthcom 2003)
June 2003 Abstract  BibTex 

Despite recent improvements in the gathering and sharing of patient

medical information among healthcare providers, there remains a gap

in the electronic medical record infrastructure. Patient data is

not available in some situations, either because the infrastructure

is inaccessible (as in a natural disaster) or because there is no

way to link the patient to the infrastructure (e.g., the patient

cannot supply necessary identification information). We describe

the Poket Doktor System, an architecture that allows an individual

to carry personal electronic medical information on a wireless handheld

device such as a smart card, cell phone, or PDA. Medical workers

can obtain this information wirelessly using handheld devices, desktop

computers, network access points, etc. In this way, patients play

an active role in the medical information infrastructure, resulting

in a better healthcare delivery system.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2003Vawdrey,
     author = {David K. Vawdrey, Eric S. Hall, Charles D. Knutson, James K Archibald},
     title = {A Self-Adapting Healthcare Information Infrastructure Using Mobile
     Computing Devices},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Enterprise Networking
     and Computing in Healthcare Industry, 2003 (Healthcom 2003)},
     year = {2003},
     pages = { 91-97},
     month = {June},
     issn = { },
     keywords = { health care, medical information systems, mobile communication, mobile
     computing, notebook computers, patient care, telemedicine Poket Doktor
     System, desktop computers, electronic medical record, handheld device,
     healthcare delivery system, healthcare providers, medical information
     infrastructure, mobile computing devices, network access points,
     patient data, self-adapting healthcare information infrastructure}
}

A Self-Adapting Healthcare Information Infrastructure Using Mobile Computing Devices

David K. Vawdrey
Masters Thesis
June 2003 Abstract  BibTex 

Despite recent improvements in the gathering and sharing of patient

medical information among healthcare providers, there remains a gap

in the electronic medical record infrastructure. Patient data is

not available in some situations, either because the infrastructure

is inaccessible (as in a natural disaster) or because there is no

way to link the patient to the infrastructure (e.g., the patient

cannot supply necessary identification information). This thesis

introduces a system that allows an individual to carry personal electronic

medical information on a wireless handheld debvice such as a smart

card, cell phone, or PDA. Medical workers can obtain this information

wirelessly using handheld devices, desktop computers, network access

points, etc. In this way, patients may become a more integral part

of the medical information infrastructure, facilitating better delivery

of medical care.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2003Vawdreyb,
     author = {David K. Vawdrey},
     title = {A Self-Adapting Healthcare Information Infrastructure Using Mobile
     Computing Devices},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2003},
     month = {June}
}

Enabling Remote Access to Personal Electronic Medical Records

Eric S. Hall, David K. Vawdrey, Charles D. Knutson, James K Archibald
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine
May 2003 Abstract  BibTex 

The Poket Doktor is a wireless personal healthcare system that can

obtain accurate patient medical information in situations where it

may not otherwise be available. The system is designed to provide

a flexible, scalable method of storing and communicating critical

electronic medical record information using personal handheld electronic

devices. The first phase of development has succeeded in: designing

the architecture for a wireless, power-efficient smart card to store

and communicate medical information incorporating Bluetooth wireless

technology with radiofrequency identification wakeup on the smart

card to enable a fast wireless connection to a healthcare provider's

device; and selecting a platform and creating application software

for a handheld computing device used by healthcare providers. The

Poket Doktor system assists medical personnel in obtaining accurate

patient medical information in situations where it may not otherwise

be available. In this manner, Poket Doktor technology will improve

the quality of care delivered in emergency situations.

@ARTICLE{2003Hall,
     author = {Eric S. Hall, David K. Vawdrey, Charles D. Knutson, James K Archibald},
     title = {Enabling Remote Access to Personal Electronic Medical Records},
     journal = {IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine},
     year = {2003},
     volume = {22},
     pages = { 133-139},
     number = {3},
     month = {May},
     doi = {10.1109/MEMB.2003.1213636},
     issn = {0739-5175},
     keywords = { biomedical communication, medical information systems, patient care,
     smart cards Bluetooth wireless technology, Poket Doktor technology,
     accurate patient medical information, application software, care
     quality improvement, emergency situations, fast wireless connection,
     handheld computing device, healthcare provider's device, healthcare
     providers, medical information communication, radiofrequency identification
     wakeup, remote access to personal electronic medical records enabling,
     wireless power-efficient smart card}
}

Architecture of a Wireless Power-Efficient Smart Card

Eric S. Hall
Masters Thesis
April 2003 Abstract  BibTex 

Significant efforts are being made to improve methods for gathering

and sharing patient medical information among healthcare providers.

Key to the success of these efforts is the active participation of

the patient in the Electronic Medical Information Infrastructure

(EMII). By equipping patients with personal electronic devices containing

electronic medical records, medical workers can obtain information

wirelessly using handheld devices, desktop computers, network access

points, etc. The proliferation of mobile computing devices along

with the increasingly widespread use of wireless data communications

technologies make it possible to achieve this vision of a “patient-centric”

EMII.

This thesis discusses the architecture and design of a wireless power-efficient

smart card that operates with an EMII. This device incorporates a

power savings module to extend battery life of resource limited mobile

electronic devices. Detail of the implementation and analysis of

the power savings module are included in this thesis. Also included

are the requirements for and implementation details of healthcare

provider software which enables communication with the smart card.

Finally, the roles and requirements of the patient and healthcare

provider devices are discusses as they relate to the broader EMII.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2003Halla,
     author = {Eric S. Hall},
     title = {Architecture of a Wireless Power-Efficient Smart Card},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2003},
     month = {April}
}

Transport Discovery in Wireless Multi-Transport Environments

Shannon B. Barnes, Ryan W. Woodings, Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2003 (WCNC 2003)
March 2003 Abstract  BibTex 

In order to utilize multiple transports, devices must discover common

mechanisms for communication, a procedure we call multi-transport

discovery. The multi-transport discovery algorithm presented in this

paper is a four-phase procedure (transport probing, transport querying,

address-to-device mapping, and transport accessibility) that can

discover common transports within a multi-transport environment.

Transport probing uses a transport-dependent device discovery mechanism

to discover an initial link. Transport querying communicates over

the probed link to query additional transports. Address-to-device

mapping correctly correlates each transport to a remote device. Finally,

transport accessibility periodically ascertains link availability

during an application session.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2003Barnes,
     author = {Shannon B. Barnes, Ryan W. Woodings, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Transport Discovery in Wireless Multi-Transport Environments},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2003 (WCNC 2003)},
     year = {2003},
     volume = {2},
     pages = {1328-1333 vol.2},
     month = {March},
     doi = {10.1109/WCNC.2003.1200566},
     issn = {1525-3511},
     keywords = {mobile radio, radio links, transport protocolsaddress-to-device mapping,
     common communication devices, common transports, initial link, link
     availability, multitransport discovery, quality of transport, remote
     device correlation, transport accessibility, transport discovery,
     transport probing, transport querying, transport-dependent device
     discovery mechanism, wireless multitransport environments}
}

Inverse Multiplexing in Short-Range Multi-Transport Wireless Communications

James C. Funk, Heidi R. Duffin, Lichen Dai, Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2003 (WCNC 2003)
March 2003 Abstract  BibTex 

This paper describes a mechanism for utilizing inverse multiplexing

to significantly increase the bandwidth available to short-range

wireless devices. Previous work with inverse multiplexing has focused

on wired networks; its implementation with short-range wireless transports

introduces heterogeneity in the links, which must be taken into account.

A mathematical model for an inverse multiplexing system is derived

for several scheduling algorithms. Both process limited and transport

limited systems are examined. The validity of this model is shown

by our implementation of an inverse multiplexing layer that uses

IrDa and Bluetooth transports. Concepts related to inverse multiplexing

such as usage models, negotiation, quality of service, and the simultaneous

use of multiple Bluetooth transports are discussed.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2003Funk,
     author = {James C. Funk, Heidi R. Duffin, Lichen Dai, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Inverse Multiplexing in Short-Range Multi-Transport Wireless Communications},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2003 (WCNC 2003)},
     year = {2003},
     volume = {2},
     pages = {757-762 vol.2},
     month = {March},
     doi = {10.1109/WCNC.2003.1200465},
     issn = {1525-3511},
     keywords = {Bluetooth, multiplexing, quality of service, schedulingBluetooth,
     IrDa, bandwidth availability, inverse multiplexing, link heterogeneity,
     negotiation, process limited system, quality of service, quality
     of transport, scheduling algorithm, short-range multi-transport wireless
     communication, transport limited system, usage model}
}

Transport and Service Discovery in Wireless Multi-Transport Environments

Shannon B. Barnes
Masters Thesis
December 2002 Abstract  BibTex 

In order for existing applications to use multiple transports for

data communication, devices must (1) discover common mechanisms for

communication and (2) handle application set up procedures that incorporate

transport-specific service discovery protocols. The Multi-Transport

Discovery algorithm presented in this thesis is a four-phase procedure

(Transport Probing, Transport Querying, Address-to-Device Mapping,

and Transport Accessibility) that can discover common transports

within a multi-transport environment. Service discovery tunneling

is conjunction with the Quality of Transport (QoT) architecture provides

a solution for untethering service to operate over arbitrary transports,

enabling initial application setup procedures to be transport independent.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2002Barnes,
     author = {Shannon B. Barnes},
     title = {Transport and Service Discovery in Wireless Multi-Transport Environments},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2002},
     month = {December}
}

Modeling Shared Radio Frequency Band Utilization of Co-Located Heterogeneous Wireless Technologies

Derek D. Joos
Masters Thesis
December 2002 Abstract  BibTex 

The rapid proliferation of short-range wireless technologies such

as 802.11b and Bluetooth in industrial, scientific, and medical radio

frequency bands suggests an impending digital traffic jam. Wireless

communication technologies utlize various signal encoding schemes

(such as direct sequence spread spectrum and frequency hopping spread

spectrum) and involve heterogeneous transport topologies. In addition,

noise-emitting devices (such as microwave ovens) create interference

in these bands. IN order to effectively model heterogeneous interference

in industrial, scientific, and medical bands, we present the design

and architecture of ISMulator, a frequency band simulation framework

to model, analyze, and quantify the traffic and interference in industrial,

scientific, and medical radio frequency bands.

@MASTERSTHESIS{2002Joos,
     author = {Derek D. Joos},
     title = {Modeling Shared Radio Frequency Band Utilization of Co-Located Heterogeneous Wireless Technologies},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2002},
     month = {December}
}

Quality of Transport (QOT): Dynamic Transport Switching in Wireless Personal Area Networks

Ryan W. Woodings
Masters Thesis
December 2002 Abstract  BibTex 

Many wireless transports are available in mobile devices today including

802.11b, Bluetooth, IrDA, cellular data, and a host of others, with

more wireless transports emerging every year. Although many handheld

devices support multiple communication transports, there is little

if any interoperability between them, leaving transports isolated

from each other even when residing in the same device. This normal

forces a user to actively decide which transport to use for each

connection. If conditions change, the user may be required to disconnect

the transport and start a new connection over a different transport.

This thesis presents Quality of Transport (QoT), a network abstraction

layer that allows transparent and dynamic transport switching in

wireless personal area networks (WPANs).

@MASTERSTHESIS{2002Woodingsa,
     author = {Ryan W. Woodings},
     title = {Quality of Transport (QOT): Dynamic Transport Switching in Wireless
     Personal Area Networks},
     school = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2002},
     month = {December}
}

RF Rendez-Blue: Reducing Power and Inquiry Costs in Bluetooth-Enabled Mobile Systems

Eric S. Hall, David K. Vawdrey, Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the IEEE Eleventh International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, 2002 (ICCCN 2002)
October 2002 Abstract  BibTex 

In resource-limited mobile computing devices, Bluetooth wireless technology

imposes a weighty burden due to inefficient power utilization and

a sluggish device discovery process. Buttressing Bluetooth with radiofrequency

identification (RFID) technology by performing an operation we call

"Rendez-Blue" alleviates these limitations. In the Rendez-Blue process,

an RFID signal is used as a cue to "wake-up" a sleeping Bluetooth

radio. This ensures that the Bluetooth radio is active only when

needed, significantly reducing power consumption. In addition, RFID

is used to communicate Bluetooth device information, allowing the

user to bypass the traditional 10.24-second discovery process.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2002Hall,
     author = {Eric S. Hall, David K. Vawdrey, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {RF Rendez-Blue: Reducing Power and Inquiry Costs in Bluetooth-Enabled
     Mobile Systems},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Eleventh International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, 2002 (ICCCN 2002)},
     year = {2002},
     pages = { 640-645},
     month = {October},
     doi = {10.1109/ICCCN.2002.1043140},
     issn = {1095-2055 },
     keywords = { Bluetooth, identification, mobile computing, mobile radio, power
     consumption Bluetooth-enabled mobile systems, RF Rendez-Blue, RFID
     signal, device discovery process, inquiry costs, power reduction,
     power utilization, radiofrequency identification, resource-limited
     mobile computing devices, wake-up}
}

Bluetooth: An Emerging Technology for Wireless Personal Area Networks

Charles D. Knutson, Eric S. Hall, David K. Vawdrey
IEEE Potentials Magazine
October 2002 Abstract  BibTex 

Bluetooth is a recently developed technology that uses radio frequency

transceivers to provide point-to-multipoint wireless connectivity

within a personal space. Bluetooth was designed for both voice and

data communication at low per-unit costs while consuming little power.

This paper describes how Bluetooth is helping to usher in a new era

of short-range wireless connectivity. As transceiver costs decline

and handheld computing devices proliferate, Bluetooth is well positioned

to bring significant value to a wide variety of users.

@ARTICLE{2002Knutson,
     author = {Charles D. Knutson, Eric S. Hall, David K. Vawdrey},
     title = {Bluetooth: An Emerging Technology for Wireless Personal Area Networks},
     journal = {IEEE Potentials Magazine},
     year = {2002},
     volume = {21},
     pages = { 28-31},
     number = {4},
     month = {October},
     doi = {10.1109/MP.2002.1044215},
     issn = {0278-6648},
     keywords = { cellular radio, integrated voice/data communication, mobile computing,
     transceivers Bluetooth, handheld computing, point-to-multipoint wireless
     connectivity, radiofrequency transceivers, short-range wireless connectivity,
     voice/data communication}
}

Transport Information Exchange Using Native Service Discovery Mechanisms

Shannon B. Barnes, Charles D. Knutson
Mobile Computing Lab Technical Report
September 2002 Abstract  BibTex 

This paper discusses an alternate approach for the Transport Querying

phase wihin the Multi-Transport Discovery Algorithm. The prurpose

of the algorithm is to assist dynamic transport switching architectures

in ascertaining mutual transport support between communication devices.

The Multi-Transport Discovery algorithm is a four-phase procedure

(Transport Probing, Trasport, Querying, Address-to-Device Mapping,

and Transport Accessibility) that can discover common transports

within a multi-transport environment. Transport Probing uses a transport-dependent

device discovery mechanism to discover an initial link. Transport

Querying communicates over the probed link to query for additional

transports. Address-to-Device Mapping correctly correlates each transport

to a remote device. Finally Transport Accessibiity pericodially ascertains

link availability dring an application session.

@TECHREPORT{2002Barnesa,
     author = {Shannon B. Barnes, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Transport Information Exchange Using Native Service Discovery Mechanisms},
     institution = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2002},
     month = {September}
}

Transport Independence and Multi-Transport Issues in Protocol Design

Ryan W. Woodings, Shannon B. Barnes, Charles D. Knutson
Mobile Computing Lab Technical Report
September 2002 BibTex 
@TECHREPORT{2002RyanW.Woodings,
     author = {Ryan W. Woodings, Shannon B. Barnes, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Transport Independence and Multi-Transport Issues in Protocol Design},
     institution = {Brigham Young University},
     year = {2002},
     month = {September}
}

Evaluating the Capacity of RLL Encoding for High Bandwidth Infrared Channels

James C. Funk, Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP '02)
July 2002 Abstract  BibTex  URL 

As infrared (IR) bandwidth increases, the physical limitations of

optical components and receiving circuitry require the use of modulation

codes with lower bandwidth efficiency. The hardware-imposed constraints

on modulation codes may be expressed as Runlength Limited (RLL) encoding

parameters. A method for determining the Shannon capacity for RLL

encoding given various constraints is introduced. This method is

used to evaluate the efficiency of the HHH(1,13) modulation code

used in Very Fast Infrared (VFIR). It is also used to explore optimal

density ratios. This work has application in evaluating future modulation

codes for high bandwidth IR channels.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2002Funk,
     author = {James C. Funk, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Evaluating the Capacity of RLL Encoding for High Bandwidth Infrared
     Channels},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Communication Systems,
     Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP '02)},
     year = {2002},
     month = {July},
     url = {http://mcl.cs.byu.edu/files/funk_rll.pdf}
}

Rapid Heterogeneous Ad Hoc Connection Establishment: Accelerating Bluetooth Inquiry Using IrDA

Ryan W. Woodings, Derek D. Joos, Trevor Clifton, Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2002 (WCNC 2002)
March 2002 Abstract  BibTex 

Bluetooth device discovery is a time-intensive phase of the Bluetooth

connection-establishment procedure. In this paper we propose a technique

that integrates existing IrDA technology with Bluetooth technology

to improve the ad hoc connection establishment time of Bluetooth

devices. We accomplish this improvement by first establishing an

IrDA connection between two devices equipped with both Bluetooth

and IrDA capabilities and then exchanging Bluetooth device discovery

information via the established IrDA connection. As a result of this

cooperative exchange, the devices are able to bypass the time-intensive

Bluetooth device discovery procedure. Our research shows that IrDA-assisted

Bluetooth connection establishment is up to four times faster than

the normal ad hoc Bluetooth connection establishment procedure. In

addition, it provides other time-savings in subsequent device selection

procedures.

@INPROCEEDINGS{2002Woodings,
     author = {Ryan W. Woodings, Derek D. Joos, Trevor Clifton, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Rapid Heterogeneous Ad Hoc Connection Establishment: Accelerating
     Bluetooth Inquiry Using IrDA},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2002 (WCNC 2002)},
     year = {2002},
     volume = {1},
     pages = { 342-349 vol.1},
     month = {March},
     doi = {10.1109/WCNC.2002.993519},
     issn = { },
     keywords = { mobile radio, optical communication, packet radio networks, wireless
     LAN Bluetooth device discovery, IrDA technology, connection establishment
     time, heterogeneous ad hoc connection establishment}
}

Fundamentals of Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) for Portable Device Designers

Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the 2002 Portable Design Conference
January 2002 BibTex 
@ARTICLE{2002Knutsona,
     author = {Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Fundamentals of Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) for Portable
     Device Designers},
     journal = {Proceedings of the 2002 Portable Design Conference},
     year = {2002},
     month = {January}
}

Infrared Financial Messaging Point and Pay Profile revision 1.0

Nick Thomas (Editor), Amitabh Awasthi, Murray Baker, Ron Brown, Ben Bostwick, Bill Chen, Ray Chock, Jae Chyun, Peter Eastwood, Nick Epperson, Lawrence Falkner, Damon González, Charles D. Knutson, Dan McKay, Brett McCleary, Gavin Peacock, Jagdeep Sahota, Dave Suvak, Nick Thomas, Merul Patel (Contributors)
Infrared Data Association
January 2002 BibTex 
@STANDARD{2002NickThomas(Editor),
     title = {Infrared Financial Messaging Point and Pay Profile revision 1.0},
     organization = {Infrared Data Association},
     author = {Nick Thomas (Editor), Amitabh Awasthi, Murray Baker, Ron Brown, Ben
     Bostwick, Bill Chen, Ray Chock, Jae Chyun, Peter Eastwood, Nick Epperson,
     Lawrence Falkner, Damon González, Charles D. Knutson, Dan McKay,
     Brett McCleary, Gavin Peacock, Jagdeep Sahota, Dave Suvak, Nick Thomas,
     Merul Patel (Contributors)},
     address = {Walnut Creek, California},
     month = {January},
     year = {2002}
}

Modeling IrDA Performance: The Effect of IrLAP Negotiation Parameters on Throughput

Michael G. Robertson, Scott V. Hansen, Franklin E. Sorenson, Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the IEEE Tenth International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, 2001 (ICCCN 2001)
October 2001 Abstract  BibTex 

The Infrared Data Association's (IrDA) infrared data transmission

protocol is a widely used mechanism for short-range wireless data

communications. In order to provide flexibility for connections between

devices of potentially disparate capabilities, IrDA devices negotiate

the values of several transmission parameters based on the capabilities

of the devices establishing the connection. This paper describes

the design and implementation of a software tool, Irdaperf, to model

IrDA performance based on negotiated transmission parameters. Using

Irdaperf, we demonstrate that for fast data rates, maximizing the

window size and data size are key factors for overcoming the negative

effects of a relatively long link turnaround time. At slower speeds

(especially 115.2 Mbps and below), these factors have a less pronounced

effect

@INPROCEEDINGS{2001Robertson,
     author = {Michael G. Robertson, Scott V. Hansen, Franklin E. Sorenson, Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Modeling IrDA Performance: The Effect of IrLAP Negotiation Parameters
     on Throughput},
     booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Tenth International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, 2001 (ICCCN 2001)},
     year = {2001},
     pages = {122-127},
     month = {October},
     doi = {10.1109/ICCCN.2001.956229},
     keywords = {data communication, optical links, protocols, software tools, telecommunication
     computing115.2 Mbit/s, Infrared Data Association, IrDA devices, IrDA
     performance modeling, IrLAP negotiation parameters, Irdaperf, data,
     fast data rates, infrared data transmission protocol, long link turnaround
     time, negotiated transmission parameters, short-range wireless data
     communications, software tool, throughput, transmission parameters,
     window size}
}

Infrared Data Communications with IrDA: A Tutorial

Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the 2000 Embedded Systems Conference
September 2000 Abstract  BibTex  URL 

IrDA infrared communication is an inexpensive and widely adopted short-range

wireless technology that allows devices to "speak" easily to each

other. Key protocol features make operation simple even for inexperienced

users or devices with very little user interface. Digital cameras,

phones, pagers, data collectors, set-top boxes, modems, kiosks, instruments,

machinery, ID badges, watches, and computer peripherals are some

of the natural users of this technology. This paper introduces IrDA

infrared data communications and explores both mandatory and optional

IrDA protocol layers and strategies.

@ARTICLE{2000Knutson,
     author = {Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {Infrared Data Communications with IrDA: A Tutorial},
     journal = {Proceedings of the 2000 Embedded Systems Conference},
     year = {2000},
     month = {September},
     url = {http://www.techonline.com/learning/techpaper/198002025}
}

IrDA Application Profile: Point and Shoot

Charles D. Knutson
Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Portable by Design Conference
February 2000 BibTex 
@ARTICLE{2000Knutsona,
     author = {Charles D. Knutson},
     title = {IrDA Application Profile: Point and Shoot},
     journal = {Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Portable by Design Conference},
     year = {2000},
     month = {February}
}

IrDA Point and Shoot Profile revision 1.0

Charles D. Knutson (Editor), Yoshinobu Akimoto, Pete Bramhall, Eric Edwards, Melinda Grant, Bryce Jeppsen, Gontaro Kitazumi, Yusuke Kushida, Rob Lockhart, Tim Looney, Lars Novak, Hiroshi Ono, Gary Parham, Gavin Peacock, James Scales, Mike Sloane, Richard Stow, David Suvak (Contributors)
Infrared Data Association
January 2000 BibTex 
@STANDARD{2000CharlesD.Knutson(Editor),
     title = {IrDA Point and Shoot Profile revision 1.0},
     organization = {Infrared Data Association},
     author = {Charles D. Knutson (Editor), Yoshinobu Akimoto, Pete Bramhall, Eric
     Edwards, Melinda Grant, Bryce Jeppsen, Gontaro Kitazumi, Yusuke Kushida,
     Rob Lockhart, Tim Looney, Lars Novak, Hiroshi Ono, Gary Parham, Gavin
     Peacock, James Scales, Mike Sloane, Richard Stow, David Suvak (Contributors)},
     address = {Walnut Creek, California},
     month = {January},
     year = {2000}
}